A Review on Waste Management of Radioactive Materials and its Economic Effects

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kermanshah, Iran


Natural radioactivity is omnipresent on earth: natural radio nuclides are abundant in all oceans, in the earth’s crust and in the atmosphere. Addition to natural resources, many activities dealing with radioactive materials produce nuclear wastes. These include civilian nuclear power reactors, defense nuclear programs (nuclear weapons production and related R&D), industrial and institutional activities and isotopic applications. To minimize the potential adverse health impacts to people during the entire lifetime of the radionuclide involved, nuclear waste must be carefully and properly managed. The scope of nuclear waste management encompasses generation, processing (treatment and packaging), storage, transport and disposal. In recent years, nuclear waste management in ceramics (e.g., synthetic rocks) has been one of the best options for immobilization of dangerous wastes and many research articles have approved the ability of these materials. In this article, the main synthetic rocks (Hollandite, Zirconolite, Perovskite, Pyrochlore and Brannerite) and process technologies for construction of them including sintering, HotIsostatic Pressing (HIP) in argon and Cold-Crucible Induction Melting have been discussed and applications of this type of waste management on immobilization of dangerous wastes are explained.  


1. Kargarfard M, Rouzbahani R, Rizvandi A, Dahghani M, Poursafa P. Hemodynamic physiological response to acute exposure to air pollution in young adults according to the fitness level. ARYA Atherosclerosis. 2009;5(3).
2. Aye Rizvandi sAZ, Mehdi Namazi zadeh. The relationship between emotional Intelligence And Entrepreneurial Rate among sport clubs Mangers in Esfahan City: from Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch(Isfahan); 2012.
3. Aye R, editor The Relationship between Entrepreneurial and Five major personality traits Among sport management graduate students in Esfahan. International Sport Science Student Conference2013 (ISSSC2013) -UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA -Kuala Lumpur- Malaysia; 2013.
4. Aye Rizvandi EM, Mohammad Soltan Hosseini, Gholam Reza Sharifi, editor Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and the Level of Swim Skills in Women in Isfahan City. International Sport Science Student Conference(2013) ISSSC 2013 -UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA -Kuala Lumpur- Malaysia; 2013.
5. Nasser Bai AD. The relationship between coaching behaviors and athletes’ burnout in Golestan province futsal super league players. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;3(6):111-4.
6. Mohammad Sayadfar HPZ, Hamid Reza Ahmadi Bazdi, Ayeh Rizvandi. The relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health of Iranian football referees( in Persian). Applied research in sports physiology. 2015;6(1):107-17.
7. Rizvandi A, editor “Emotional Intelligence of Isfahan’s Sport Club Managers Regarding Demographic Characteristics, Isfahan, Iran”. International Sport Science Student Conference 2015 (ISSSC 2015), at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2015.
8. Rizvandi Aye  Ma, Hossein aghaee Nia, editor Study of Knowledge Level of Soccer Players of Premier League in Sports Rights in Iran. International Sport Science Student Conference 2015 (ISSSC 2015),at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2015.
9. Eskandarnejad M, Mobayen F, Dana A. The effect of basketball training on ADHD children's learning skills. Research Journal of Sport Sciences. 2015;3(6):163-7.
10. Aye Rizvandi FT, Mohammad Reza Esmaeeli. The Structure Model Test Of Sport ClubManager’s Performance based on Entrepreneurial Marketing“: Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch; 2016.
11. Mohammad Reza Niknezhad SGGZZ, Amir Dana. Sociologic Explanation of Sport Participation and National Confidence. The Social Sciences. 2016;11(9):2123-8.
12. Rizvandi Aye  TF, Esmaili Mohammad Reza. Testing a conceptual model of entrepreneurial marketing club managers of Tehran. Quarterly Journal of Sport Development and Management (Persian). 2017;7(3):15-31.
13. Dana A, Hamzeh Sabzi A, Gozalzadeh A. The Structural Relationships of Coaching Efficacy, Players' Self-Efficacy, and Collective Efficacy in Female Professional Basketball Teams. Journal of Sport Psychology Studies. 2017;18(5):111-28.
14. Roghani, A., Nyarko, S., & Sparks, C. (2021). The first family formation among young Americans: the role of family process. SN Social Sciences, 1(2). doi: 10.1007/s43545-020-00045-x
15. Roghani, A., & Panahi, S. (2021). Does Telemedicine Reduce health disparities? Longitudinal Evidence during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. Medrxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.03.01.21252330
16. Roghani, A., & Panahi, S. (2021). The global distribution of COVID-19 vaccine: The role of macro-socioeconomics measures. Medrxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.02.09.21251436
17. Roghani, A. (2021). The Influence of Covid-19 Vaccine on Daily Cases, Hospitalization, and Death Rate in Tennessee: A Case Study in the United States. Medrxiv. doi: 10.1101/2021.03.16.21253767
18. Ali Roghani, “The Role of Family Process on Academic Educational Achievements in the United States: Evidence from a longitudinal study” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-2, pp.502-506 February 2021  DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5227
19. Ali Roghani, Samin Panahi, Higher COVID-19 Vaccination Rates among Unemployed in the United States: State Level Study in the First 100 days of Vaccine Initiation, medRxiv, 2021
20 Ali Roghani, ATTITUDE OF FACULTY MEMBERS TO MIGRATION OUT OF COUNTRY: A CASE STUDY OF ISFAHAN UNIVERSITIES, Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 2014, Vol. 4, Issue 4
21.          Aye Rizvandi MF, Erfan Arzhang. InvestigatingEffect of Students' and Coaches' emotional intelligence on academic achievement with mediation of sport success. Apuntes Universitarios. 2020;3(10):79-94.
22.          Aye Rizvandi MSk. Investigating the impact of the media on international sporting events and the extent of tourist attraction at that event. Journal of Humanities Insights. 2020;4(2):45-51.
23.          Aye Rizvandi MF, Mohammad Mehdi Pahlevani. Testing A Model of The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence - Emotional Labor With Job Burnout (Case Study: Physical Education Teachers of Kermanshah City, Iran). International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. 2020.
24.          Rizvandi A, Afrozeh M S, M J. Examining the challenges of sport business in COVID-19 virus period and outlining solutions. sport management study (DOI): 1022089/SMRJ202088723026 (Persian). 2020.
25.          Rizvandi A, Farzadfar, Mona, Author) AM. Supply Chain Management for Sporting Goods Retailing. https://www.amazon.com/dp/0648495949?ref=myi_title_dp; 2020.
26.          Rizvandi A, Farzadfar M, Arzhang E. Análisis del efecto de la inteligencia emocional de estudiantes y entrenadores en el rendimiento académico con mediación del éxito deportivo. Apuntes Universitarios. 2020;10(3):79-94.
27.          Ghasemian MB, Zavabeti A, Abbasi R, Kumar P, Syed N, Yao Y, et al. Ultra-thin lead‎ oxide‎ piezoelectric‎ layers for‎ reduced‎ environmental‎ contamination using a liquid metal-based process. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2020.