A Review on Waste Management of Radioactive Materials and its Economic Effects

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kermanshah, Iran


Natural radioactivity is omnipresent on earth: natural radio nuclides are abundant in all oceans, in the earth’s crust and in the atmosphere. Addition to natural resources, many activities dealing with radioactive materials produce nuclear wastes. These include civilian nuclear power reactors, defense nuclear programs (nuclear weapons production and related R&D), industrial and institutional activities and isotopic applications. To minimize the potential adverse health impacts to people during the entire lifetime of the radionuclide involved, nuclear waste must be carefully and properly managed. The scope of nuclear waste management encompasses generation, processing (treatment and packaging), storage, transport and disposal. In recent years, nuclear waste management in ceramics (e.g., synthetic rocks) has been one of the best options for immobilization of dangerous wastes and many research articles have approved the ability of these materials. In this article, the main synthetic rocks (Hollandite, Zirconolite, Perovskite, Pyrochlore and Brannerite) and process technologies for construction of them including sintering, HotIsostatic Pressing (HIP) in argon and Cold-Crucible Induction Melting have been discussed and applications of this type of waste management on immobilization of dangerous wastes are explained.  


1. Tripps J., Maio V. 2006. Evaluation of the Use of Synroc to solidify the Cs and Sr Separation Products from Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Idaho National Laboratory, U.S Department of Energy.
2. Chourasia R., Shrivastava O.P., Ambashta R.D., Wattal P.K. 2010. Crystal chemistry of immobilization of fast breeder reactor (FBR) simulated waste in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramic matrix, Annals of Nuclear Energy 37: 103–112.
3. Baur K., Von Collani E. 2010. Nuclear fuel cycle quality management handbook, Vol I: Fabrication, Operation, Disposal and transport of nuclear fuel, Advanced Nuclear Technology International.
4. Safety and regulations for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, Report of Technical Committee Meeting, Vienna, Austria, May 2000.
5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System, A directory of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, IAEA-TECDOC-1613, Vienna, Austria, April 2009.
6. Bodense J.M., Dewiere L., Oustriere P., Ausseur J.Y., Menjoz A., Sauty J.P., Vauclin M. 1990. Modeling heat transfer near a deep uderground nuclear waste repository, A discussion of boundary conditions, Proceeding of the conference held in Hague.

7.Akberov M.R., Pepper W., Chen Y. ModelingConvective Heat Transfer around a Waste Cask Stored in the Yucca Montain Repository, The 6th ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, Hawaii, USA.
8.Used of Reprocessed Uranium, Proceedings ofTechnical Committee meeting, IAEA-TECDOC-CD-1630, Vienna, Austria, August 2007.
9.Recycle and reuse of materials and componentsfrom waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, IAEATECDOC-1130, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, January 2000.
10.Min B.Y., Kang Y., Song P.S., Choi W.K., Jung C.H.,Oh W.Z. 2007. Study on the verification of mixed radioactive waste by plasma arc melting. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 13 (1): 57–64.
11.Application of ion exchange processes for thetreatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers, International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Report Series, No 408, Vienna, 2002.
12.Deokattey S., Bhaskar N., Kalyane V.L., Kumar V.,Jahagirdar P.B. 2003. Borosilicate glass and synroc R&D for radioactive waste immobilization: an international perspective. Journal of the Minerals Metals and Materials Society 55 (10): 48–51.
13.Crow J.M. 2007. Safer storage of nuclear waste.Journal of Materials Chemistry, 17(30), A2.
14.Hayashi T. 2007. Current status of foodirradiation. Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology. (Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi) 54(9): 389–394.
15.Hoffman E.A., Stacey W.M. 2004. Nuclear designand analysis of the fusion transmutation of waste reactor. Fusion Science and Technology 45 (1): 51–54.
16.Luca V., Drabarek E., Chronis H., McLeod T.2006. Tungsten bronze-based nuclear waste form ceramics. Part 3: The system Cs0.3MxW1_xO3 for the immobilization of radio cesium. Journal of Nuclear Materials 358: 164–175.
17.Production techniques and quality control ofsealed radioactive sources of 103Pd, 125I,192Ir and 169Yb, Final report of a coordinated research project, IAEA-TECDOC-1512, 2001-2005, Vienna, Austria.
18.Thome L., Moll S., Sattonnay G., Vincent L.,Garrido F., Jagielski J. 2009. Radiation effects in cbic zirconia: A model system for ceramic oxides. Journal of Nuclear Materials 389: 297–302.
19.Loiseau P., Caurant D., Baffiier N., Mazerolles L.,Fillet C. 2004. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-ZrO2-TiO2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu,Gd,Yb) and actinides (Th): study of internal crystallization, Journal of Nuclear Materials 335: 14–32.
20.Singh B.K., Tomar R., Kumar S., Jain A., TomarB.S., Manchanda V.K. 2010. Sorption of 137Cs, 133Ba and 154Eu by synthesized sodium aluminosilicates
(Na-AS), School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, India.
21.Santa Fe. August 25-27 1997. Topicalconference on Plutonium and Actinides, New Mexico, Los Alamos National Laoratory.
22.Ringwood A.E. 1978. Safe Disposal of High LevelRadioactive Wastes: A New Strategy. Australian National University Press.
23.Krishnaiah M.V., Joseph J., Seenivasan G.,Govindan Kutty K.V. 2003. Calorimetric study of selected NZP-type of ceramic materials. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 351: 212–216.
24.Li H., Zhang Y., McGlinn P.J., Moricca S., BeggB.D., Vance E.R. 2006. Characterization of stainless steel– synroc interactions under hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) conditions. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 355: 136–141.
25.Angeli F., McGlinn P., Frugier P. 2008. ChemicalDurability of Hollandite Ceramic for Conditioning Cesium, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 380: 59–69.
26.Icenhower J.P., Strachan D.M., McGrail B.P.,Scheele R.D., Rodriquez E.A., Steele J.L., Legore V.L., Am. Mineral 91: 39, 2006.
27.Zhang Y., Li H., Moricca S. 2008. Pyrochlore- structured titanate ceramics for immobilization of actinides: Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and stainless steel/waste form interactions, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 377: 470–475.
28.Gatehouse B., Gray I.E., Hill R.J., Rossell H.J.1981. Acta Crystallogr. B, 37, 306.
29.Advocat T., McGlinn P.J., Fillet C., Leturcq G.,Schuller S., Bonnetier A., Hart K. 2001. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 663: 277.
30.Guy C., Audubert F., Lartigue J. E., Latrille C.,Advocat T., Fillet C. 2002. C. R. Phys. 3, 827.
31.Smith K.L., Zhang Z., McGlinn P., Attard D., Li H.,Lumpkin G.R., Colella M., McLeod T., Aly Z., Loi E., Leung S., Ridgway M., Weber W.J., Thevuthasan S. 2003. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 757, 289.
32.Lian J.L., Wang L.M., Lumpkin G.R., Ewing R.C.2002. Heavy ion irradiation effects of brannerite-type ceramics. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 191: 565–570.
33.Jostsons A., Vance L., Ebbinghaus B. 1999.Proceedings of the International Conference on Future Nuclear Systems, Global’s 99, Nuclear Technology-Bridging the Millennia, Wyoming, 29 August–3 September.
34.Vance E.R., Zhang Y.J., Watson J.N., Hart K.P., DayR.A., Begg B.D., Lumpkin G.R. 2000. Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 219 (Part 2) U87.
35.Wenk, Hans-Rudolf, Bulakh, Andrei, Minerals:Their Constitution and Origin. New York, NY: Cambridge University, 2004.
36.Aubin-Chevaldonnet V., Caurant D., Dannoux A.,Gourier D., Charpentier T., Mazerolles L., Advocat T. 2007. Preparation and Characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti)8O16 (M=Al3+,Fe3+,Ga3+,Cr3+,Sc3+,Mg2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive

37. Somayyeh Heidary AYN, Atefeh Mehrabi Far. Colonization and Investigation of Vibrio Cholera Recombination Protein in E-Coli. International Journal of Engineering & Technology. 2018;7(4.7).

38. Nezhad AY, SH AMF, Piryaei M, Mostafavi SM. Investigation of Shigella lipopolysaccharides effects on immunity stimulation of host cells. International Transaction Journal of Engineering. Management, Applied Sciences and Technologies. 2019;10:465.

39. Narmin Najafzadeh MMS, Syed Shuja Sultan, Adel Spotin, Alireza Zamani, Roozbeh Taslimian, Amir Yaghoubinezhad, Parviz Parvizi. The existence of only one haplotype of Leishmania major in the main and potential reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis using different molecular markers in a focal area in Iran. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2014;47(5).

40. Rizvandi A, Taghipour Gharbi M, Esmaeili M, Ashraf Ganjoee F. The Evaluation of Performance Indicators of Coaches in Football Development. Journal of Humanities Insights. 2019;03(04):248-54.

41. S. Mojtaba Mostafavi BR. Nanomaterial Chemistry. Toranj Group Publication, Ltd.; 2010.

42. Neda Samei PP, Adel Spotin, Mohammad Reza Khatami Nezhad, Narmin Najafzadeh, Amir Yaghoubinezhad. IDENTIFYING OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASES BY AMPLIFYING CYT B GENE IN INDIGENOUS FOCI OF Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014;43(2).

43. Neda Samei PP, Mohammadreza Khatami Nezhad, Amir Yaghoubinezhad, Narmin Najafzadeh, Adel Spotin. Finding various molecular haplotypes of Leishmania major in human using three HSp70, ITS-rDNA and Cyt b genes. 1st and 13th Iranian Genetics Congress; Tehran2014.

44. Aye Rizvandi MTG, Mohammadreza Esmaeili, Farideh Ashraf Ganjoee. The Evaluation of Performance Indicators of Coaches in Football Development. Journal of Humanities Insights. 2019;3(4).

45. Adel Spotin SR, Parviz Parvizi, Parnazsadat Ghaemmaghami, Ali Haghighi, Aref Amirkhani, Ali Bordbar, Amir Yaghoubinezhad. Different Phenotypic Aspects with No Genotypic Heterogeneity in Leishmania Major Isolates of Suspected Patients in Northern Khuzestan Province. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014;43(2).

46. Mehdi Kargarfard RR, Ayeh Rizvandi, Mehdi Dahghani, Parinaz Poursafa. Hemodynamic physiological response to acute exposure to air pollution in young adults according to the fitness level. ARYA Atherosclerosis. 2009;5(3).

47. Aye Rizvandi FT, Zahea Sadegh Zadeh. Sport consumer behaviour model: Motivators and constraints. Universidad de Alicante Área de Educación Física y Deporte. 2019;14.

48. Aye Rizvandi FT. Entrepreneurial marketing effects on sport club manager performance (Conceptual Model). Universidad de Alicante Área de Educación Física y Deporte. 2019;14.

49. Mostafavi SM, Pashaee F, Rouhollahi A, Adibi M, editors. Electrochemical Study and Determination of Thiophene by Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode. 6th Aegean Analytical Chemistry Days (AACD), Denizli, Turkey; 2008.

50. Aye Rizvandi MF, Maryam Asadollahi Supply Chain Management for Sporting Goods Retailing: Mikima Book Publication; 2020.

51. Seyed Mojtaba Mostafavi MP, Ahmad Rouhollahi, Mohajeri A. Separation and Quantification of Hydrocarbons of LPG Using Novel MWCNT-Silica Gel Nanocomposite as Packed Column Adsorbent of Gas Chromatography. Journal of NanoAnalysis. 2014;1(01):01.

52. Seyed Mojtaba Mostafavi MP, Ahmad Rouhollahi, Mohajeri A. Separation of Aromatic and Alcoholic Mixtures using Novel MWCNT- Silica Gel Nanocomposite as an Adsorbent in Gas Chromatography. Journal of NanoAnalysis. 2014;1(01):11.

53. Mostafavi SM. 3D Graphene Biocatalysts for Development of Enzymatic Biofuel Cells: A Short Review. Journal of Nanoanalysis. 2015;2(2):57-62. 18. Parvanian S, Mostafavi SM, Aghashiri M. Multifunctional Nanoparticle Developments in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatmen. Sensing and Bio- Sensing Research. 2016;1(2):22.

54. Mostafavi SM, editor Enhancement of mechanical performance of polymer nanocomposites using ZnO nanoparticles. 5th International Conference on Composites: Characterization, Fabrication and Application (CCFA-5); 2016: Iran University of Science and Technology.

55. Abolfazl Davoudiroknabadi SMM, Seyed Sajad Sajadikhah. An Introduction to Nanotechnology. Mikima Book; 2016.

56. Abolfazl Davodiroknabadi SMM, Ali Asghar Pasban. Fundamentals of Nanostructure and Nanomaterial. Mikima Book; 2016.

57. Pasban A, Mostafavi SM, Malekzadeh H, Mohammad Nazari B. Quantitative Determination of LPG Hydrocarbons by Modified Packed Column Adsorbent of Gas Chromatography Via Full Factorial Design. Journal of Nanoanalysis. 2017;4(1):31-40.

58. Seyed Mojtaba Mostafavi AR, Mina Adibi, Farshid Pashaee, Masoumeh Piryaei. Modification of Glassy Carbon Electrode by a Simple, Inexpensive and Fast Method Using an Ionic Liquid Based on Immidazolium as Working Electrode in Electrochemical Determination of Some Biological Compounds. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2011;23(12).